Reinforced Ross Procedure in an Adult "Beating Heart Autograft Harvest"
This is a 28-year-old man with history of bicuspid aortic valve and previous repair of aortic coarctation via left thoracotomy as a child using a left subclavian flap technique.
He presents with moderate aortic valve stenosis and dilated ascending aorta. Follow up cardiac MRI showed continued increase in his ascending aorta diameter which now measured 4.9 cm. Decision was made to proceed with surgery. Discussion regarding aortic valve replacement options was done and it was felt that he is a good candidate for a Ross procedure.
The procedure was performed via a standard median sternotomy and normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass via aortic and bicaval cannulation. The autograft was harvested with electrocautery on a beating heart. It was then trimmed and sized proximally to determine the size of the Valsalva graft needed. We added 4 mm to the proximal pulmonary autograft. A 32 mm Valsalva graft was used, and the autograft was reimplanted inside the Valsalva graft and secured proximally using 3 running 5/0 prolene sutures. The graft was then everted, and the distal portion of the autograft was suspended in the distal portion of the Valsalva graft using three running 5/0 prolene sutures. The autograft valve was then saline tested, and the pulmonary valve seemed to be competent.
It was then placed in cold saline. The ascending aorta was then cross clamped and antegrade cardioplegia was administered. We then transected the ascending aorta. The aortic valve cusps were resected, and coronary buttons were harvested. Due to the size mismatch between the autograft and the native aortic root, we elected to enlarge the root by using a combination of anterior and posterior enlargement techniques. The annulus was splitted anteriorly to the left of the right coronary artery following Konno-Rastan incision (mini-Konno) and splitted posteriorly along the commissure between the left and non-coronary sinuses of Valsalva following Manouguian’s technique. The reinforced autograft was then secured to the left ventricular outflow tract using multiple interrupted pledgeted 2/0 Ethibond sutures that were placed in a horizontal mattress fashion. Coronary artery buttons were then re-implanted in the middle of the corresponding sinus of Valsalva of the neo-aortic root using running 5/0 prolene sutures. These sutures incorporated all three layers (the autograft sinus wall, the hemashield graft and the native coronary button). The distal Valsalva graft was then anastomosed to the native distal ascending aorta using running 4/0 prolene suture. The heart was then de-aired, and the aortic cross clamp was removed. The patient regained his normal sinus rhythm. A 30 mm pulmonary homograft was then used to reconstruct the right ventricular outflow tract. The pulmonary homograft was a bit short, so we used a short segment of the 32 mm Valsalva graft to lengthen the pulmonary homograft. The patient was then weaned off cardiopulmonary bypass without difficulty. Post bypass transesophageal echocardiogram showed widely patent left and right ventricular outflow tracts with competent pulmonary homograft valve and no neo-aortic valve regurgitation. Ventricular function was preserved. The aortic cross clamp time was 84 minutes
The patient was extubated in the operating room and the remaining postoperative course was uneventful. He was discharged on the sixth postoperative day.
In conclusion, reinforced Ross procedure has the potential to be a better support design for the pulmonary autograft in young adult patients with aortic valve disease compared to the standard Ross and this may have the potential for a longer-term durability of the neo-aortic valve and may decrease the incidence of neo-aortic root aneurysm formation. Long-term data will be needed.
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