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Pulmonary Valve Implantation by Less Invasive Surgery
The pulmonary valve can be accessed through an anterior thoracotomy via the second intercostal space. The patient is placed on cardiopulmonary bypass through femoral cannulation. The right heart is emptied of blood and through an incision in the pulmonary artery a valve is implanted. This simplifies the operation and allows for expeditious recovery.
Cheema FH, Heng EE, Rehman A. Pulmonary valve replacement through a left minithoracotomy: an alternative approach. Ann Thorac Surg. 2014 Nov;98(5):1827-1829.