Innovations on the Norwood Procedure: Sustained Total All-Region (STAR) Perfusion
Recovery following the neonatal Norwood procedure is often complicated by bleeding, acute kidney injury, systemic inflammatory response, and low cardiac function . The traditional conduct of this operation under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest likely exacerbates these problems. Total body perfusion during Norwood reconstruction may improve post-operative recovery by cooling to only mild hypothermia and eliminating ischemic time in all vascular beds. Here, we present a novel technique for sustained total all-region (STAR) perfusion of the heart, upper body, and lower body throughout the Norwood operation [2, 3].
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 Turek JW, Hanfland RA, Davenport TL, et al. Norwood reconstruction using continuous coronary perfusion: a safe and translatable technique. Ann Thorac Surg. 2013;96(1):219-23.
 Andersen ND, Prabhu NK, Turek JW. Sustained Total All-Region (STAR) Perfusion for Norwood Reconstruction. Operative Techniques in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 2020;25(3):126-39.